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Investing 101

What if your future self could send you financial advice? We bet it would read: “Pay off your debt. Start investing. Please and thank me!”

Sound intimidating? It doesn’t have to be. In plain language, this investing guide covers:

  • The what and why of investing
  • Things to tackle before you start investing
  • How to get started investing
  • How to know what to invest in
  • Common retirement plans
  • Investing best practices

What is investing, and why should I bother?

Investing is like planting a seed. You are taking an action today to prepare for the future. In this case, you plant money in smart places where it has potential to grow. One day, that seed might help you achieve a goal — pay for college, buy a house, retire comfortably, etc.

Here’s an example. What if you planted $100 in a fund that invests in the 500 largest stocks on the New York Stock Exchange and walked away for 30 years — didn’t touch it? Although past performance is not an indication of future results, the S&P 500’s average annual return since 1923 is 12%. At this rate, the $100 would have grown to about $3,000 in those 30 years — without you doing anything. That’s a healthy money tree!

Now imagine you became a regular gardener, planting $100 seeds on a regular basis!*

This is just one way to invest money. Some investments are short-term, some are long. Some are more conservative and typically achieve lower rates of return. Some involve more risk but have the possibility of larger returns.

But money set aside in a shoebox doesn’t grow at all. If you want to get ahead and persue important goals, it’s vital to plant some of your money in places where it can potentially grow.

The magic bean: compounding returns

When you invest money, you are looking for growth — a rate of return on that investment. Some investments have fixed returns. In other cases, like stocks, you actually purchase shares of ownership in a company, and the factors that impact your potential return become numerous.

A magic bean of investing is called compounding. Compounding happens when you leave the money you earn parked in the investment, where it starts earning money itself. When your returns start earning a return and are left alone for a long period of time to multiply, that can be a recipe for good things.

Comparison: An investment without compounding

Remember the example above where you planted $100 for 30 years and earned $3,000? That’s the beauty of compounding.*

What if you pocketed those returns every year instead of leaving them alone for 30? What if at the end of year 1, you bought a pizza with the 12 bucks your $100 investment made instead of leaving it alone to grow more money in year 2?

Without your returns compounding year after year, the difference is staggering. Instead of $3,000 after 30 years, you would have $460 — and $360 of that would have been blown on the annual pizza you pulled the money out for.

Don’t settle for an annual pizza. That’s robbery against future you! Compounding and time are your friends when it comes to growing your money.

What to do before you start investing

Investing is one component of smart money management. Because it’s tied to your overall financial health, it’s impacted by other aspects of your finances. Before you start investing, start with a 3-step financial health checkup.

1. Plan for investing with a budget

A budget is a tool to tell your money where to go. Investing is part of the “savings” portion of a healthy budget.

Remember how those $100 seeds add up? A budget is the tool you use to ensure you’re consistently planting. When you know how to budget your money, you make a plan for investing. This includes the exact amount you should be planting and how often to do so.

2. Deal with debt

Debt is the opposite of investing — you are paying interest instead of earning returns. In most cases, it is wise to pay off high-interest, consumer debt before you start investing. Why? It’s like competing against yourself. Some debt grows at rates that could outpace your investments, making it difficult to ever get ahead.

No investment strategy will succeed unless it coincides with a strategy for how to pay off your debt.

3. Start with savings

Your first true investment should be savings. Build up a robust fund to cover emergencies and several months of expenses. These investments should be in a savings or money-market account you have easy access to.

Why not invest in a longer-term account first? For one thing, riskier assets like stocks are far more predictable in the long term than the short term. If your emergency coincides with a sharp downturn in the market, you could end up losing a lot of money. Plus, withdrawing funds early from longer-term investments could result in tax implications or penalties.

You can’t plan for the future if you can’t pay for today. First, set aside money to cover emergencies like a car repair. This prevents you from having to tap longer-term investments.

Getting started investing

As you set out on your investment journey, begin with the end in mind.

Determine your goals

What financial milestones are you investing for? A special vacation? Putting children through college? Retirement? Be specific. If you are saving for retirement, what do you expect that retirement to look like?

As you identify these goals, it will help you create priorities.

Assess your tolerance for risk

Investments run the gamut of risk. It is important to bring your own personality and stage of life into your investment selection. For instance, a risk-averse person might take a more cautious approach. So would someone nearing retirement.

Learn from a teacher

Know thyself? Check. Know all thy investing options? That part is trickier.

That’s why meeting with a financial professional is a smart move. Find someone who takes time to understand your goals, priorities, risk tolerance, and is willing to educate you on your options.

Don’t be afraid to ask questions and invest time in independent learning and research. Bottom line is you shouldn’t invest in things you don’t know or understand. A financial advisor may be able to help with that.

What options are available?

There is a wide variety of investment opportunities available. Let’s focus on a few of the most common: cash, bonds, stocks, and mutual funds.**


Cash investments are lower risk. They include things like Savings Accounts, Money Market Accounts, and Certificates of Deposit.


Bonds are when the government or companies borrow money from investors and agree to pay them a rate of interest in return. They are also known as fixed-income investments. Bonds are typically considered less risky, but losses are still possible.


With stocks, instead of loaning money to a company you purchase partial ownership of a company. This makes stocks a more volatile investment. They go up or down depending on the rising and falling value of the company. Many companies also pay regular dividends. These payments represent your share of the profits of the company.

Mutual funds

Mutual funds are when a group of investors pool money for a specific investment strategy. A single mutual fund could invest in an assortment of stocks, bonds, or cash products, for example. A special kind of mutual fund, called an exchange-traded fund, invests in a specifically defined segment of the market. An example of this is the S&P 500 fund previously referenced.

Investing in retirement plans

To persue a financially secure retirement, it’s important to plan ahead. Most retirement investment options come with tax advantages. Two of the most popular plans for retirement investing are the IRA and the 401(k).


IRA stands for individual retirement account. It allows individuals to direct pre-tax income toward investments that can grow tax-deferred. A 10% IRS penalty may apply to withdrawals prior to age 59½.


401(k) plans are employer-sponsored accounts. They make it easy for employees to set aside pre-tax income from paychecks for retirement. A huge benefit of some 401(k) plans is employer matching. If your employer offers to match your contribution, take advantage of it! That is free money for retirement you’re not going to get any other way.

The Roth option

When setting up retirement accounts, there is often an option to open a Roth version. With Roth accounts, investors pay taxes on the front end but enjoy tax-free withdrawals in retirement. That means growth on these investments is not subject to tax. Roth IRAs are available to investors who fall within certain income limitations. Most 401(k) plans also offer a Roth option.

Investment best practices

There are many considerations for creating a disciplined investment plan. As you set off on your own journey, here are 3 to leave you with.

1. Keep those eggs separate

You’ve heard the line about not keeping all your eggs in one basket? Yeah, that’s super important advice.

In investment circles, you’ll hear words like “diversify” and “asset allocation.” These are strategic terms in their own right. They are also a warning against concentrating your investments too heavily in one area, such as an employer’s stock.

The price might be right, but if the stock takes a beating, so does your unbalanced portfolio. Build a plan calibrated toward your goals and risk tolerance. And then make sure it spreads your money around into multiple investments. Don't forget that a diversified portfolio does not assure a profit or protect against loss in a declining market.

2. Leave those retirement accounts alone

Remember when we talked about the importance of an emergency fund? That’s so you won’t be tempted to touch your retirement accounts, which often have 10% penalties if you cash out before retirement. You also cut your compounding magic off at the knees. Not ideal.

While you should be aware of your option to borrow money from your 401(k), there are several reasons to beware. You may be forced to pay it back more quickly than you hoped if you leave your job, which could cause you to default on the loan. A 401(k) loan is a consequential decision and should not be taken lightly. It’s smart to talk to a qualified financial advisor before making this decision.

3. Remember, you’re in this for the long haul

Investing isn’t a get-rich-quick scheme. It’s a smart choice that requires patience, discipline, and persistence.

Time is your friend. When you invest for the long haul, it puts short-term market downturns in proper perspective. It also allows you to maximize the benefits of compounding returns.

When is the best time to start saving for retirement? If you have some debt and aren’t quite sure, consult a qualified financial advisor for guidance. If you have paid off your debt, you should start today!

As the Chinese proverb teaches, “The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The second-best time is now.”

Why not modify that quote and send this message to future you: “The best time to plant a tree is 20 years ago, so I just did.”

*The hypothetical investment results are for illustrative purposes only and should not be deemed a representation of past or future results. Actual investment results may be more or less than those shown. This does not represent any specific product.

**Investors should consider the investment objectives, risks and charges and expenses of the funds carefully before investing. The prospectus contains this and other information about the funds. Contact your Financial Professional at 14610 E Sprague Ave, Spokane, WA 99216 or 509.342.9678 to obtain a prospectus, which should be read carefully before investing or sending money.

Numerica Financial Services is a marketing name of Cetera Investment Services.  Securities and insurance products are offered through Cetera Investment Services LLC (doing insurance business in CA as CFG STC Insurance Agency LLC), member FINRA/SIPC. Advisory services are offered through Cetera Investment Advisers LLC. Neither firm is affiliated with the financial institution where investment services are offered. Individuals affiliated with this broker/dealer firm are either Registered Representatives who offer only brokerage services and receive transaction-based compensation (commissions), Investment Adviser Representatives who offer only investment advisory services and receive fees based on assets, or both Registered Representatives and Investment Adviser Representatives, who can offer both types of services.

Investments are: *Not FDIC/NCUSIF insured *May lose value *Not financial institution guaranteed *Not a deposit *Not insured by any federal government agency.

Click here to view Cetera Investment Services Important Information and Business Continuity Plan.

This site is published for residents of the United States only. Registered Representatives of Cetera Investment Services LLC may only conduct business with residents of the states and/or jurisdictions in which they are properly registered. Not all of the products and services referenced on this site may be available in every state and through every advisor listed. For additional information please contact the advisor(s) listed on the site, visit the Cetera Investment Services LLC site at

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March 21, 2023